Summary of significant accounting policies

The most significant accounting policies used for the preparation of the consolidated financial statements are shown below.

Current assets

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, demand deposits and financial assets with original maturities of 90 days or less that are readily convertible to cash amounts and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

Inventories

Inventories, with the exception of contract work-in-progress, are stated at the lower of purchase or production cost and market value. The cost of inventories is determined by applying the weighted average cost method, while market value – given that the inventories are mainly spare parts – is taken as the lower of replacement cost or net realisable value.

Work-in-progress relating to long-term contracts is stated on the basis of agreed contract revenue determined with reasonable certainty, recognised in proportion to the stage of completion of contract activity. Given the nature of the contracts and the type of work, the percentage of completion is calculated on the basis of the work performed, being the percentage of costs incurred with respect to the total estimated costs (cost-to-cost method).

Adjustments made for the economic effects of using this method on net sales from operations, to reflect differences between amounts earned based on the percentage of completion and recognised revenues, are included under contract work-in-progress if positive or under trade payables if negative.

When hedged by derivative contracts qualifying for hedge accounting, revenues denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the contracted rates. Otherwise, they are translated at the exchange rate prevailing at year end. The same method is used for any costs in a foreign currency.

The valuation of work-in-progress considers all directly related costs, contractual risks and contract revision clauses, where they can be objectively determined.

Modifications to original contracts for additional works are recognised when realisation is probable and the amount can be reliably estimated. Expected losses on contracts are recognised fully in the year in which they become probable.

Bidding costs are expended in the year in which they are incurred.

Current financial assets

Held for trading financial assets and available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value (see ‘Fair value measurement’) with gains or losses recognised in the income statement under ‘Finance income (expense)’ and in the equity reserve6 related to ‘Other items of comprehensive income’, respectively. In the latter case, changes in fair value recognised in equity are taken to the income statement when the asset is sold or impaired.

Assets are assessed for objective evidence of an impairment loss. This may include significant breaches of contracts, serious financial difficulties or the high probability of insolvency of the counterparty.

Losses are deducted from the carrying amount of the asset.

Interest and dividends on financial assets stated at fair value are accounted for on an accruals basis as ‘Finance income (expense)’7 and ‘Other income (expense) from investments’, respectively.

When the purchase or sale of a financial asset occurs under a contract whose terms require delivery of the asset within the time frame established generally by regulation or convention in the market place concerned (e.g. purchase of securities on regulated markets), the transaction is accounted for on the settlement date.

Receivables are stated at amortised cost (see ‘Financial fixed assets - Receivables and financial assets held to maturity’).

Transferred financial assets are derecognised from assets when the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial assets are transferred together with the risks and rewards of ownership.

(6) Changes in the fair value of available-for-sale financial assets denominated in foreign currencies due to changes in exchange rates are recognised in profit or loss.
(7) Interest income on financial assets held for trading is included in the fair value measurement of the instrument and recognised under ‘Finance income (expense)’ in the item ‘Income (expense) from securities held for
trading’. Interest income on financial assets available for sale is recognised under ‘Finance income (expense)’ in the item ‘Finance income’.

Non-current assets

Tangible assets

Tangible assets are recognised using the cost model and stated at their purchase or production cost including any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset into operation. In addition, when a substantial amount of time is required to make the asset ready for use, the purchase price or production cost includes borrowing costs that theoretically would have been avoided had the investment not been made. The purchase or production cost is net of government grants related to assets, which are only recognised when all the required conditions have been met.

In the case of a present obligation for the dismantling and removal of assets and the restoration of sites, the carrying value includes, with a corresponding entry to a specific provision, the estimated (discounted) costs to be borne at the moment the asset is retired. The accounting treatment of changes in estimates for these provisions, the passage of time and the discount rate are indicated under ‘Provisions for contingencies’.

Assets held under finance leases or under leasing arrangements that do not take the legal form of a finance lease but substantially transfer all the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased asset are recognised at fair value, net of taxes due from the lessor or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments, within tangible assets. A corresponding financial debt payable to the lessor is recognised as a financial liability.

These assets are depreciated using the criteria described below. Where it is not reasonably certain that the purchase option will be exercised, leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and the estimated useful life of the asset.

Expenditures on renewals, improvements and transformations that extend the useful lives of the related asset are capitalised when it is likely that they will increase the future economic benefits expected from the asset.

Tangible assets are depreciated systematically using a straight-line method over their useful life, which is an estimate of the period over which the assets will be used by the company. When the tangible asset comprises more than one significant element with different useful lives, each component is depreciated separately. The depreciable amount of an asset is its cost less the estimated residual value at the end of its useful life, if this is significant and can be reasonably determined. Land is not depreciated, even where purchased with a building. Tangible assets held for sale are not depreciated but are valued at the lower of book value and fair value less costs to sell (see ‘Non-current assets held for sale’).

Changes to depreciation schedules related to changes in the estimated useful life or the residual value of an asset or in the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits flowing from an asset are accounted for prospectively.

Replacement costs of identifiable components in complex assets are capitalised and depreciated over their useful life. The residual book value of the component that has been replaced is charged to the income statement. Ordinary maintenance and repair costs are expensed when incurred.

The carrying value of tangible assets is reviewed for impairment whenever events indicate that the carrying amounts for those assets may not be recoverable. The recoverability of an asset is assessed by comparing its carrying value with the recoverable amount, represented by the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use.

Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from the use of the asset and, if significant and reasonably determinable, from its disposal at the end of its useful life, net of disposal costs. Cash flows are determined on the basis of reasonable and documented assumptions that represent the best estimate of the future economic conditions during the remaining useful life of the asset, giving more importance to independent assumptions.

Discounting is carried out at a rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset that are not reflected in the estimate of future cash flows. The discount rate used is the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) adjusted for risks specific to the market.

Value in use is calculated net of the tax effect, as this method results in values similar to those resulting from discounting pre-tax cash flows at a pre-tax discount rate deriving, through an iteration process, from a post-tax valuation.

Valuation is carried out for each single asset or, if the realisable value of single assets cannot be determined, for the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates independent cash inflows from their continuous use, referred to as cash generating units. If the reasons for impairment cease to exist, the impairment loss is reversed to the income statement as income from revaluation. The value of the asset is written back to the lower of the recoverable amount and the original book value before impairment, less the depreciation that would have been charged had no impairment loss been recognised.

Tangible assets destined for specific operating projects, for which no further future use is envisaged due to the characteristics of the asset itself or the high usage sustained during the execution of the project, are amortised over the duration of the project.

Intangible assets

Intangible assets are identifiable assets without physical substance that are controlled by the company and from which future economic benefits are expected, as well as goodwill acquired in business combinations. An asset is classified as intangible when management is able to distinguish it clearly from goodwill. This condition is normally met when: (i) the intangible asset arises from legal or contractual rights, or (ii) the asset is separable, i.e. can be sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged, either individually or as an integral part of other assets. An entity controls an asset if it has the power to obtain the future economic benefits deriving from the underlying resource and to restrict the access of others to those benefits. Intangible assets are stated at purchase or production cost as determined with the criteria used for tangible assets.

Intangible assets with a defined useful life are amortised systematically over their useful life estimated as the period over which the assets will be used by the company. The amount to be amortised and the recoverability of their book value are determined in accordance with the criteria described in the section ‘Tangible assets’.

Goodwill and other intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are not amortised. The recoverability of their carrying value is reviewed at least annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

Goodwill is tested for impairment at the level of the cash generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated. The cash generating unit is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use, and that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets, on which company management monitors the return on the investment in that goodwill. If the carrying amount of the cash generating unit, including goodwill allocated thereto, determined by taking into account the impairment of non-current assets that are part of the cash generating unit, exceeds the cash generating unit’s recoverable amount8, the excess is recognised as impairment. The impairment loss is first allocated to reduce the carrying amount of goodwill. Any remaining excess is allocated on a pro-rata basis to the carrying value of the assets that form the cash generating unit.

Impairment charges against goodwill are not reversed9.

Costs of technological development activities

Costs of technological development activities are capitalised when the Company can demonstrate:

  1. the technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale;
  2. its intention to complete the asset and use or sell it;
  3. its ability to use or sell the asset;
  4. how the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits;
  5. the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the asset;
  6. its ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.

Grants

Grants related to assets are recorded as a reduction of the purchase price or production cost of the related assets when there is reasonable assurance that all the required conditions attached to them, agreed upon with government entities, will be met. Grants related to income are recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs.

(8) For the definition of recoverable amount see ‘Tangible assets’.
(9) Impairment charges are not reversed even if no loss, or a smaller loss, would have been recognised had the impairment been assessed only at the end of the subsequent interim period.

Financial fixed assets

INVESTMENTS

Investments in subsidiaries and jointly-controlled entities excluded from consolidation and associates are accounted for using the equity method. Jointly-controlled entities are those entities over which Saipem holds the right, jointly with its partners, to govern financial and operating policies so as to obtain benefits. Associated companies are companies over which Saipem exercises a significant influence, i.e. the power to participate in financial and operating policy decisions, without exercising control or joint control.

In accordance with the equity method of accounting, investments are recognised at purchase cost. Any difference between the cost of the investment and the company’s share of the fair value of the net identifiable assets of the investment is treated in the same way as for business combinations. Subsequently, the carrying amount is adjusted to take into account: (i) the post-acquisition change in the investor’s share of net assets of the investee; and (ii) the investor’s share of the investee’s other comprehensive income. Shares of changes in the net assets of investees that are not recognised in profit or loss or other comprehensive income of the investee are recognised in the income statement when they reflect the substance of a disposal of an interest in said investee.

Dividends received from an investee reduce the carrying amount of the investment. When using the equity method, the adjustments required for the consolidation process are applied (see ‘Principles of consolidation’).

When there is objective evidence of impairment (see also ‘Current financial assets’), the recoverability is tested by comparing the carrying amount and the related recoverable amount determined adopting the criteria indicated in the item ‘Tangible assets’.

If it does not result in a misrepresentation of the company’s financial condition and consolidated results, subsidiaries excluded from consolidation and associates are accounted for at cost, adjusted for impairment charges.

When the reasons for their impairment cease to exist, investments accounted for at cost are revalued within the limit of the impairment made and their effects are taken to the income statement item ‘Other income (expense) from investments’.

A disposal of interests that results in a loss of joint control or significant influence causes recognition in the income statement of: (i) any gains or losses calculated as the difference between the consideration received and the portion of the carrying amount disposed; (ii) any gains or losses attributable to measuring any investment retained at its fair value; and (iii) any amounts recognised in other comprehensive income in relation to the investee that may be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss10. The fair value of any retained interest at the date when joint control or significant influence is lost represents the new carrying amount for subsequent accounting in accordance with the applicable accounting criteria.

Other investments, included in non-current assets, are recognised at fair value with changes reported in the equity reserve related to ‘Other items of comprehensive income’. Changes in fair value recognised in equity are charged to the income statement when the investment is sold or impaired. When investments are not traded in a public market and fair value cannot be reasonably determined, investments are accounted for at cost, adjusted for impairment losses, which may not be reversed11.

The investor’s share of any losses exceeding the carrying amount is recognised in a specific provision to the extent that that investor is required to fulfil legal or implicit obligations towards the investee or to cover its losses.

RECEIVABLES AND HELD-TO-MATURITY FINANCIAL ASSETS

Receivables and financial assets to be held to maturity are stated at cost, i.e. at the fair value of the consideration received, plus transaction costs (e.g. agency or consultancy fees, etc.). The initial carrying amount is subsequently adjusted to take into account principal repayments, impairment losses, and cumulative amortisation of any difference between the initial amount and the maturity amount. Amortisation is carried out on the basis of the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash flows to the instrument’s initial carrying amount (i.e. the amortised cost method). Receivables for finance leases are recognised at an amount equal to the present value of the lease payments and the purchase option price or any residual value; the amount is discounted at the interest rate implicit in the lease.

Any impairment is recognised by comparing the carrying value with the present value of the expected cash flows discounted at the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition or adjusted to reflect contractual repricing dates (see also ‘Current assets’). Receivables and held-to-maturity financial assets are recognised net of the provision for impairment losses. When the impairment loss is definite, the provision is used; otherwise it is released. Changes to the carrying amount of receivables or financial assets arising from measurement at amortised cost are recognised as ‘Finance income (expenses)’.

Assets held for sale and discontinued operations

Non-current assets and current and non-current assets included within disposal groups, whose carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through their continuing use, are classified as held for sale. This condition is considered met when the sale is highly probable and the asset or disposal group is available for immediate sale in its current condition. Non-current assets held for sale, current and non-current assets included within disposal groups and liabilities directly associated with them are recognised in the balance sheet separately from the entity’s other assets and liabilities.

Non-current assets held for sale are not depreciated and are measured at the lower of the fair value less costs to sell and their carrying amount (see ‘Fair value measurement’).

The classification of investments accounted for using the equity method as held for sale requires the suspension of the application of this method of accounting. In such cases, the carrying amount is therefore equal to the value deriving from the application of the equity method at the date of reclassification.

Any difference between the carrying amount and the fair value less costs to sell is taken to the income statement as an impairment loss; any subsequent reversal is recognised up to the cumulative impairment losses, including those recognised prior to qualification of the asset as held for sale.

Non-current assets and current and non-current assets included within disposal groups and classified as held for sale constitute a discontinued operation if: (i) they represent a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations; (ii) they are part of a single coordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations; and (iii) they are a subsidiary acquired with a view to resale.

Profit or loss of discontinued operations, as well as any gains or losses on their disposal are reported separately in the income statement, net of any tax effects. The results of discontinued operations are also reported in the comparative figures for prior years.

When the sale of a subsidiary is planned and this will lead to loss of control, all of its assets and liabilities are classified as held for sale. This applies whether or not an interest is retained in the former subsidiary after the sale.

(10) Any amounts recognised in other comprehensive income in relation to the former jointly-controlled entity or associate that may not be reclassified to profit or loss are transferred directly to retained earnings. (11) Impairment charges are not reversed even if no loss, or a smaller loss, would have been recognised had the impairment been assessed only at the end of the subsequent interim period.

Financial liabilities

Debt is carried at amortised cost (see ‘Financial fixed assets - Receivables and held-to-maturity financial assets’). Financial liabilities are eliminated when they have been settled, or when the contractual condition has been fulfilled or cancelled or when it has expired.

Provisions for contingencies

Provisions for contingencies concern risks and charges of a definite nature and whose existence is certain or probable but for which at year-end the timing or amount of future expenditure is uncertain.

Provisions are recognised when: (i) there is a present obligation, either legal or constructive, as a result of a past event; (ii) it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and (iii) a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions represent the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation or to transfer it to third parties at the balance sheet date. The amount recognised for onerous contracts is the lower of the cost necessary to fulfil the contract obligations, net of the economic benefits expected to be received under it, and any compensation or penalties arising from failure to fulfil these obligations. Where the effect of the time value of money is material and the payment dates of the obligations can be reliably estimated, the provisions should be discounted using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects the current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as ‘Finance (expense) income’.

When the liability regards a tangible asset, the provision is stated with a corresponding entry to the asset to which it refers and taken to the income statement through the depreciation process.

The costs that the company expects to bear to carry out restructuring plans are recognised when the company formally defines the plan and the interested parties have developed a valid expectation that the restructuring will occur.

Provisions are periodically updated to show the variations of estimates of costs, production times and actuarial rates. Increases or decreases for changes in estimates for provisions recognised in prior periods are recognised in the same income statement item used to accrue the provision, or, when a liability regards tangible assets, through an entry corresponding to the assets to which they refer, within the limits of the carrying amount. Any excess is taken to the income statement.

In the notes to the consolidated financial statements, the following contingent liabilities are described: (i) possible, but not probable obligations arising from past events, whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the company; and (ii) present obligations arising from past events whose amount cannot be measured with sufficient reliability or whose settlement will probably not require an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits.

Provisions for employee benefits

Post-employment benefits are established on the basis of benefit plans, including informal arrangements, which are classified as either ‘defined contribution plans’ or ‘defined benefit plans’ depending on their characteristics. In the first case, the company’s obligation, which consists of making payments to the State or to a trust or fund, is determined on the basis of the contributions due.

The liabilities arising from defined benefit plans, net of any plan assets, are determined on the basis of actuarial assumptions and charged on an accruals basis during the employment period required to obtain the benefits.

The net interest, which is recognised in profit or loss, includes the expected return on plan assets and the interest cost. Net interest is determined by applying the discount rate for liabilities to liabilities net of any plan assets. The net interest on defined benefit plans is posted to ‘Financial income (expenses)’.

Remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses arising from changes in actuarial assumptions or from experience adjustments and the return on plan assets excluding amounts included in net interest, are recognised in the statement of other comprehensive income. Remeasurements of net defined benefit assets excluding amounts included in net interest are also recognised in the statement of other comprehensive income.

Long-term benefits obligations are determined by adopting actuarial assumptions. The effects of remeasurement are taken to profit or loss in their entirety.

Treasury shares

Treasury shares are recognised at cost and deducted from equity. Gains or losses from the subsequent sale of treasury shares are recorded as an increase (or decrease) in equity.

Revenues

Revenues for contract work-in-progress are recognised by reference to the stage of completion of a contract determined using the cost-to-cost method. Revenues for contract work-in-progress in a foreign currency are recognised at the euro exchange rate on the date when the stage of completion of a contract is measured and accepted by the client. This value is adjusted to take into account exchange differences arising on derivatives that qualify for hedge accounting.

Advances are recognised at the exchange rate on the date of payment. Requests for additional payments deriving from a change in the scope of the work are included in the total amount of revenues when it is probable that the client will approve the variation and the relevant amount. Claims deriving for example from additional costs incurred for reasons attributable to the client are included in the total amount of revenues when it is probable that the client will accept them. Work that has not yet been accepted is recognised at the year-end exchange rate.

Revenues associated with sales of products and services, with the exception of contract work-in-progress, are recorded when the significant risks and rewards of ownership pass to the customer or when the transaction can be considered settled and associated revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenues related to partially rendered services are recognised by reference to the stage of completion, providing this can be measured reliably and that there is no significant uncertainty regarding the collectability of the amount and the related costs. Otherwise they are recognised only to the extent of the recoverable costs incurred.

Revenues are stated at the fair value of considerations received or receivable, net of returns, discounts, rebates and bonuses, as well as directly related taxation.

Costs

Costs are recognised in relation to goods and services, excluding contract work-in-progress, sold or consumed within the year, through systematic allocation over the useful life of the related asset, or when their future benefits cannot be determined.

Operating lease payments are recognised in the income statement over the length of the contract.

Labour costs comprise remuneration paid, provisions made to pension funds, accrued holidays, national insurance and social security contributions in compliance with national contracts of employment and current legislation.

Stock options granted to senior managers, given their compensatory nature, are included in labour costs. The instruments granted are recognised at their fair value at the grant date and are not subject to subsequent adjustments. The current portion is calculated pro-rata over the vesting period12. The fair value of stock options is determined using valuation techniques which consider conditions related to the exercise of options, the market value of shares, expected volatility and the risk-free interest rate.

The fair value of stock options is shown in the item ‘Payroll and related costs’ as a contra entry to ‘Other reserves’ in equity.

The costs for the acquisition of new knowledge or discoveries, the study of products or alternative processes, new techniques or models, the planning and construction of prototypes or any other costs incurred for other scientific research activities or technological development, are generally considered current costs and expensed as incurred. These costs are capitalised (see ‘Intangible assets’) only when they meet the requirements listed under ‘Costs of technological development activities’.

(12) Period between the date of the award and the date on which the option can be exercised.

Exchange rate differences

Revenues and costs associated with transactions in currencies other than the functional currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Monetary assets and liabilities in currencies other than the functional currency are converted by applying the year-end exchange rate. Any exchange differences are recognised in the income statement.

Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency valued at cost are translated at the initial exchange rate. Non-monetary assets that are re-measured at fair value (i.e. at their recoverable amount or realisable value), are translated at the exchange rate applicable on the date of re-measurement.

Dividends

Dividends are recognised at the date of the general shareholders’ meeting in which they were declared, except when the sale of shares before the ex-dividend date is certain.

Income taxes

Current income taxes are determined on the basis of estimated taxable income. The estimated liability is recognised in ‘Income tax payables’.

Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the tax authorities, using the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax assets or liabilities are recognised for temporary differences between the carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities, based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted for future years. Deferred tax assets are recognised when their recovery is considered probable. The recoverability of deferred taxes is considered probable when it is expected that sufficient taxable profit will be available in the periods in which the temporary differences reverse against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised.

Similarly, unused tax credits and deferred tax assets on tax losses are recognised to the extent that they can be recovered.

For temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, jointly-controlled entities and associated companies, deferred tax liabilities are not recorded if the investor is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the reversal will not occur in the foreseeable future.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded under non-current assets and liabilities and are offset at single entity level if related to offsettable taxes. The balance of the offset, if positive, is recognised under ‘Deferred tax assets’ and, if negative, under ‘Deferred tax liabilities’.

When the results of transactions are recognised directly in shareholders’ equity, current taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities are also charged to equity.

Derivatives

A derivative is a financial instrument which has the following characteristics: (i) its value changes in response to the changes in a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate or other variable; (ii) it requires no initial net investment or the investment is small; and (iii) it is settled at a future date.

Derivatives, including embedded derivatives that are separated from the host contract, are assets and liabilities measured at fair value.

Consistently with its business requirements, Saipem classifies derivatives as hedging instruments whenever possible. The fair value of derivative liabilities takes into account the issuer’s own non-performance risk (see ‘Fair value measurement’).

Derivatives are classified as hedging instruments when the relationship between the derivative and the hedged item is formally documented and the effectiveness of the hedge, assessed on an ongoing basis, is demonstrated to be high. When hedging instruments cover the risk of changes in the fair value of the hedged item (e.g. hedging of changes in the fair value of fixed rate assets/liabilities), they are recognised at fair value, with changes taken to the income statement. Accordingly, the hedged item is adjusted through profit or loss for changes in fair value attributable to the hedged risk, regardless of the provisions of other measurement criteria generally applicable to the type of instrument in question.

A cash flow hedge is a hedge of the exposure to variability in cash flows that could affect profit or loss and that is attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability (such as future interest payments on variable rate debt) or a highly probable forecast transaction, such as project income/costs.

The effective portion of variations in fair value of derivatives designated as hedges under IAS 39 is recorded initially in a hedging reserve related to other items of comprehensive income. This reserve is recognised in the income statement in the period in which the hedged item affects profit or loss.

The ineffective portion of changes in fair value of derivatives, as well as the entire change in fair value of those derivatives not designated as hedges or that do not meet the criteria set out in IAS 39, are taken directly to the income statement under ‘Finance income (expense)’.

Changes in the fair value of derivatives which do not satisfy the conditions for being qualified as hedges are recognised in the income statement. Specifically, changes in the fair value of non-hedging interest rate and foreign currency derivatives are recognised in the income statement under ‘Finance income (expense)’; conversely, changes in the fair value of non-hedging commodity derivatives are recognised in the income statement under ‘Other operating income (expense)’.

Fair value measurement

Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (i.e. the ‘exit price’) in an orderly transaction that is not a forced sale, liquidation sale or a distressed sale between market participants at the measurement date.

Fair value is determined based on market conditions at the measurement date and the assumptions that market participants would use (i.e. it is a market-based measurement). Fair value measurement assumes the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability occurs in a principal market or, in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market to which the entity has access. It does not consider an entity’s intent to sell the asset or transfer the liability.

Fair value measurements of non-financial assets take into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use. The highest and best use is determined from the perspective of market participants, even if the entity intends a different use. An entity’s current use of a non-financial asset is presumed to be its highest and best use unless market or other factors suggest that a different use by market participants would maximise the value of the asset.

In the absence of quoted market prices, the fair value of a financial or non-financial liability or an entity’s own equity instruments is taken as the fair value of the corresponding asset held by another market participant at the measurement date.

Counterparty credit risk and own credit risk are taken into account in determining the fair value of a liability.

In the absence of quoted market prices, an entity uses valuation techniques appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.

Financial statements13

Assets and liabilities of the balance sheet are classified as current and non-current. Items of the income statement are presented by nature14. The statement of comprehensive income shows net profit together with income and expenses that are recognised directly in equity in accordance with IFRS.

The statement of changes in shareholders’ equity includes profit and loss for the year, transactions with shareholders and other changes in shareholders’ equity.

The cash flow statement is prepared using the indirect method, whereby net profit is adjusted for the effects of non-cash transactions.

(13) The structure of the financial statements is the same as that used in the 2012 Annual Report, with the exception of: (i) the statement of comprehensive income where, as a result of the changes to IAS 1 ‘Presentation of
Financial Statements’, items of other comprehensive income are grouped based on whether they may be reclassified to profit or loss subsequently in accordance with the relevant IFRS (i.e. reclassification adjustments); and
(ii) application of the new provisions of IAS 19, whose effects are described in the section ‘Changes to accounting principles’.
(14) Additional information regarding financial instruments, applying the classification required by IFRS, is provided under Note 31 ‘Guarantees, commitments and risks - Additional information on financial instruments’.

Changes to accounting principles

European Commission Regulation No. 475/2012 dated June 5, 2012 approved the new version of IAS 19 ‘Employee benefits’. For further information on the effects of the requirements of IAS 19, see the section ‘Restatement of financial statements at December 31, 2012’ of the Notes to the consolidated financial statements.

In addition, IFRS 13 ‘Fair Value Measurement’ became applicable as of January 1, 2013, following its approval by European Commission Regulation No. 1255/2012 dated December 11, 2012. IFRS 13 regards a single IFRS framework for fair value measurements required or allowed for by other IFRSs as well as disclosure. The application of the provisions did not produce any significant effects.

Financial risk management

The main financial risks that Saipem is facing and actively monitoring and managing are the following:

  1. the market risk deriving from exposure to fluctuations in interest rates and exchange rates between the euro and the other currencies used by the company and the risk deriving from exposure to commodity price volatility;
  2. the credit risk deriving from the possible default of a counterparty;
  3. the liquidity risk deriving from the risk that suitable sources of funding for the Group’s operations may not be available.

Financial risks are managed in accordance with guidelines issued centrally, with the objective of aligning and coordinating Saipem Group policies on financial risks.

For further details on industrial risks, see the ‘Risk management’ section in the Directors’ Report.

MARKET RISK

Market risk is the possibility that changes in currency exchange rates, interest rates or commodity prices will adversely affect the value of the Group’s financial assets, liabilities or expected future cash flows. Saipem actively manages market risk in accordance with a set of policies and guidelines that provide a centralised model of conducting finance, treasury and risk management operations based on the Group Treasury Structures.

Exchange rate risk

Exchange rate risk derives from the fact that Saipem’s operations are conducted in currencies other than the euro and that revenues and costs from a significant portion of projects implemented are denominated and settled in non-euro currencies. This impacts on:

  • individual profits, which may be significantly affected by exchange rate fluctuations on specific transactions arising from the time lag existing between the execution of a given transaction and the definition of the relevant contractual terms (economic risk) and by the conversion of foreign currency-denominated trade and financial payables and receivables (transaction risk);
  • the Group’s reported results and shareholders’ equity, as financial statements of subsidiaries denominated in currencies other than the euro are translated from their functional currency into euro.

Saipem’s foreign exchange risk management policy is to minimise economic and transactional exposures arising from foreign currency movements and to optimise the economic exchange risk connected with commodity prices. Saipem does not undertake any hedging activity for risks deriving from the translation of foreign currency denominated profits or assets and liabilities of subsidiaries that prepare financial statements in a currency other than the euro.

Saipem uses a number of different types of derivative contract to reduce economic and transaction exposure such as currency swaps, forwards and options. The fair value of exchange rate derivatives is determined by the Corporate Finance Unit of Eni SpA on the basis of standard valuation models and market prices/input provided by specialised sources.

Planning, coordination and management of this activity at Group level is the responsibility of the Saipem Treasury Department, which closely monitors the correlation between derivatives and their underlying flows as well as ensuring their correct accounting representation in compliance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

An exchange rate sensitivity analysis was performed for those currencies other than euro for which exchange risk exposure in 2013 was highest in order to calculate the effect on the income statement and shareholders’ equity of hypothetical positive and negative variations of 10% in exchange rates.

The analysis was performed for all relevant financial assets and liabilities denominated in the currencies considered and regarded in particular the following items:

  • exchange rate derivatives;
  • trade and other receivables;
  • trade and other payables;
  • cash and cash equivalents;
  • short and long-term financial liabilities.

For exchange rate derivatives, the sensitivity analysis on fair value was conducted by comparing the conditions underlying the forward price fixed in the contract (i.e. spot exchange rate and interest rate) with spot rates and interest rate curves corresponding to the relevant contractual maturity dates, on the basis of year-end exchange rates subjected to hypothetical positive and negative changes of 10%, with the resulting effects weighted on the basis of the notional amounts.

The analysis did not examine the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on the measurement of work-in-progress because work in progress does not constitute a financial asset under IAS 32. Moreover, the analysis regards exposure to exchange rate risk in accordance with IFRS 7 and therefore does not consider the effects of the conversion of financial statements of consolidated companies with functional currencies other than the euro.

A positive variation in exchange rates between the foreign currencies examined and the euro (i.e. depreciation of the euro against the other currencies) would have produced an overall effect on pre-tax profit of -€5 million (-€49 million at December 31, 2012) and an overall effect on shareholders’ equity, before related tax effects, of -€273 million (-€393 million at December 31, 2012).

A negative variation in exchange rates between the foreign currencies examined and the euro (i.e. appreciation of the euro against the other currencies) would have produced an overall effect on pre-tax profit of €9 million (€48 million at December 31, 2012) and an overall effect on shareholders’ equity, before related tax effects, of €276 million (€389 million at December 31, 2012).

The increases/decreases with respect to the previous year are essentially due to the currency exchange rates on the two reference dates and to variations in the assets and liabilities exposed to exchange rate fluctuations.

The table below shows the effects of the above sensitivity analysis on balance sheet and income statement items.

  2012     2013    
  +10%   -10%   +10%   -10%  
 (€ million)  Income statementShareholder's equityIncome statementShareholder's equityIncome statementShareholder's equityIncome statementShareholder's equity
 Derivatives   (26)   (370)   29   370   (26)   (294)   27   294 
 Trade and other receivables    111   111   (91)   (91)   142   142   (116)   (116) 
 Trade and other payables    (135)   (135)   111   111   (111)   (111)   91   91 
 Cash and cash equivalents    24   24   (20)   (20)   46   46   (38)   (38) 
 Short-term debt    (5)   (5)   4   4   (29)   (29)   23   23 
 Medium/long-term debt    (18)   (18)   15   15   (27)   (27)   22   22 
 Total   (49)   (393)   48   389   (5)   (273)   9   276 

The results of the sensitivity analysis on trade receivables and payables for the principal currencies were as follows.

  Dec. 31, 2012Dec. 31, 2013
(€ million) CurrencyTotal ∆ -10% ∆ +10% Total ∆ -10% ∆ +10% 
Receivables              
  USD  864  (79)  96  1.156  (105)  128 
  NOK  24  (2)  50  (5) 
  AED  24  (2)  30  (3) 
  GBP  (1)  18  (2) 
  PLN  (1)  - 14  (1) 
  DZD  37  (3)  -
  QAR  35  (3)  - - -
  Other currencies - - - -
Total   997  (91)  111  1.275  (116)  142 
Payables              
  USD  782  71  (87)  731  66  (81) 
  GBP  66  (7)  62  (7) 
  AED  71  (8)  51  (5) 
  CNY  10  (1)  35  (4) 
  DZD  120  11  (13)  33  (4) 
  NOK  30  (3)  30  (3) 
  CHF  - - 28  (3) 
  PLN  29  (3)  10  (1) 
  SGD  32  (4)  - (1) 
  AUD  25  (3)  - (1) 
  KZT  41  (5)  - -
  Other curriencies (1)  12  (1) 
Total   1.216  111  (135)  1.003  91  (111) 

Interest rate risk

Interest rate fluctuations affect the market value of the company’s financial assets and liabilities and its net finance expenses. The purpose of risk management is to reduce interest rate risk to a minimum in pursuit of the financial structuring objectives set and approved by management.

When entering into long-term financing agreements with variable rates, the Treasury Department of the Saipem Group assesses their compliance with objectives and, where necessary, uses Interest Rate Swaps (IRS) to manage the risk exposure arising from interest rate fluctuations.

Planning, coordination and management of this activity at Group level is the responsibility of the Saipem Treasury Department, which closely monitors the correlation between derivatives and their underlying flows as well as ensuring their correct accounting representation in compliance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Such derivatives are evaluated by the Corporate Finance Unit of Eni SpA at fair value on the basis of market standard evaluation and market prices provided by specialised sources. No interest rate swaps were in force at December 31, 2013.

To measure sensitivity to interest rate risk, a sensitivity analysis was performed. The analysis calculated the effect on the income statement and shareholders’ equity of hypothetical positive and negative variations of 10% in interest rates.

The analysis was performed for all relevant financial assets and liabilities exposed to interest rate fluctuations and regarded in particular the following items:

  • interest rate derivatives;
  • cash and cash equivalents;
  • short and long-term financial liabilities.

For interest rate derivatives, the sensitivity analysis on fair value was conducted by comparing the interest rate conditions (fixed and variable rate) underlying the contract and used to calculate future interest rate differentials with discount curves for variable interest rates on the basis of year-end interest rates subjected to hypothetical positive and negative changes of 10%, with the resulting changes weighted on the basis of the notional amounts. For cash and cash equivalents, the analysis used the average balance for the year and the average rate of return for the year, while for short and long-term financial liabilities, the average exposure for the year and average interest rate for the year were considered.

A positive variation in interest rates would have produced an overall effect on pre-tax profit of -€10 million (-€6 million at December 31, 2012) and an overall effect on shareholders’ equity, before related tax effects of -€10 million (-€6 million at December 31, 2012). A negative variation in interest rates would have produced an overall effect on pre-tax profit of €10 million (€6 million at December 31, 2012) and an overall effect on shareholders’ equity, before related tax effects of €10 million (€6 million at December 31, 2012).

The increases/decreases with respect to the previous year are essentially due to the interest rates on the two reference dates and to variations in the assets and liabilities exposed to interest rate fluctuations.

The table below shows the effects of the above sensitivity analysis on balance sheet and income statement items.

  2012     2013    
  +10%   -10%   +10%   -10%  
 (€ million)  Income statementShareholder's equityIncome statementShareholder's equityIncome statementShareholder's equityIncome statementShareholder's equity
 Cash and cash equivalents    1   1   (1)  (1) - - - -
 Short-term debt    (3)   (3)   3   3   (5)   (5)   5   5 
 Medium/long-term debt    (4)   (4)   4   4   (5)   (5)   5   5 
 Total   (6)   (6)   6   6   (10)   (10)   10   10 

Commodity price risk

Saipem’s results are affected by changes in the prices of oil products (fuel oil, lubricants, bunker oil, etc.) and raw materials, since they represent associated costs in the running of vessels, offices and yards and the implementation of projects and investments.

In order to reduce its commodity risk, in addition to adopting solutions at a commercial level, Saipem also trades over the counter derivatives (swap and bullet swaps in particular) whose underlying commodities are oil products (mainly gasoil and naphtha) through Eni Trading & Shipping (ETS) on the organised markets of ICE and NYMEX where the relevant physical commodity market is well correlated to the financial market and is price efficient.

As regards commodity price risk management, derivative instruments on commodities are entered into by Saipem to hedge underlying contractual commitments. Hedge transactions may also be entered into in relation to future underlying contractual commitments, provided these are highly probable.

The fair value of such derivatives is determined by the Treasury Department of Eni SpA on the basis of standard valuation models and market prices/input provided by specialised sources. With regard to commodity risk hedging instruments, a 10% positive variation in the underlying rates would have produced no effect on pre-tax profit, while it would have had an effect on shareholders’ equity, before related tax effects, of €2 million (€1 million at December 31, 2012). A 10% negative variation in the underlying rates would have produced no effect on pretax profit, while it would have had an effect on shareholders’ equity, before related tax effects, of -€2 million (-€1 million at December 31, 2012).

The increase (decrease) with respect to the previous year is essentially due to the differences between the prices used in calculating the fair value of the instrument at the two reference dates.

CREDIT RISK

Credit risk represents Saipem’s exposure to potential losses in the event of non-performance by a counterparty. As regards counterparty risk in commercial contracts, credit management is the responsibility of the business units and of specific corporate finance and administration functions operating on the basis of standard business partner evaluation and credit worthiness procedures. For counterparty financial risk deriving from the investment of surplus liquidity, from positions in derivative contracts and from physical commodities contracts with financial counterparties, Group companies adopt guidelines defined by the Treasury Department of Saipem in accordance with the centralised treasury model of Eni.

The critical situation that has developed on the financial markets has led to additional preventative measures being adopted to avoid the concentration of risk and assets. This situation has also required the setting of limits and conditions for operations involving derivative instruments.

The Company did not have any significant cases of non-performance by counterparties.

As at December 31, 2013, Saipem had no significant concentrations of credit risk.

LIQUIDITY RISK

Liquidity risk is the risk that suitable sources of funding for the Group may not be available (funding liquidity risk), or that the Group is unable to sell its assets on the market place (asset liquidity risk), making it unable to meet its short-term finance requirements and settle obligations. Such a situation would negatively impact the Group’s results as it would result in the Company incurring higher borrowing expenses to meet its obligations or under the worst of conditions the inability of the Company to continue as a going concern. As part of its financial planning process, Saipem manages liquidity risk by targeting a capital structure that guarantees a level of liquidity adequate for the Groups’ needs, optimising the opportunity cost of maintaining liquidity reserves and achieving an optimal profile in terms of maturity and composition of debt in accordance with business objectives and prescribed limits.

At present, in spite of the current market conditions, Saipem believes it has access to sufficient funding and borrowing facilities to meet currently foreseeable requirements, thanks to a use of credit lines that is both flexible and targeted to meet business needs.

The liquidity management policies used have the objective of ensuring both adequate funding to meet short-term requirements and obligations and a sufficient level of operating flexibility to fund Saipem’s development plans, maintaining a balance in terms of debt composition and maturity profile as well as adequate credit facilities.

As of December 31, 2013, Saipem maintained unused borrowing facilities of €1,858 million. In addition, Eni SpA provides lines of credit to Saipem SpA under Eni Group centralised treasury arrangements. These facilities were under interest rates that reflected market conditions. Fees charged for unused facilities were not significant.

The following tables show total contractual payments (including interest payments) and maturities on financial debt and payments and due dates for trade and other payables.

Finance debt

 Maturity
(milioni di euro) 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Oltre Totale 
Long-term debt 1,358  725  602  637  713  182  4,217 
Short-term debt 1,899  - - - - - 1,899 
Derivative liabilities 115  - - - - - 115 
  3,372  725  602  637  713  182  6,231 
Interest on debt 95  69  59  44  13  18  298 

Trade and other payables

 Maturity
(€ million)20142015-2018AfterTotal
Trade payables 2,812  - - 2,812
Other payables and advances 2,468  - 2,470

Outstanding contractual obligations

In addition to the financial and trade debt recorded in the balance sheet, the Saipem Group has contractual obligations relating to non-cancellable operating leases whose performance will entail payments being made in future years. The following table shows undiscounted payments due in future years in relation to outstanding contractual obligations.

 Maturity
(€ million)20142015201620172018AfterTotal
Non-cancellable operating leases 84 57 46 45 16 37 285

The table below summarises Saipem’s investment commitments for which procurement contracts have already been entered into.

 Maturity
(€ million)2014 2015 
Committed on major projects -
Committed on other investments 115 
Total 119